Prodicus, whom Plato himself appreciated, seems to have focused on the moral problem. It is customary to determine our moral responsibility by balancing the consequences of our actions. According to the impact, correct moral behavior is determined only by a cost-benefit analysis of the consequences of an action: an important area of moral psychology concerns the intrinsic selfishness of man. The British philosopher Thomas Hobbes of the 17th century felt that many, if not all of our actions, were inspired by selfish desires. Even if an action seems desatist, such as giving to charities, there are still selfish causes, such as the experience of power over others. This view is described as psychological selfishness and asserts that self-directed interests end up motivating all human actions. Psychological selfishness is intimately linked to a point of view called psychological hedonism, which considers pleasure to be the specific driving force behind all our actions. The British philosopher Joseph Butler agreed that instinctive selfishness and pleasure provoke much of our behavior. But Butler argued that we also have an inherent psychological ability to be kind to others. This view is described as psychological altruism and affirms that at least some of our actions are motivated by instinctive benevolence. The character of agreeing with the norms of good behavior is called morality. The normative ethic implies the establishment of moral norms that govern just and false behaviour. In a way, this is a search for an ideal paint test for good behavior.

The golden rule is a classic example of a normative principle: we should do to others what we want from others. Since I don`t want my neighbor to steal my car, I`m wrong to steal her car. Since I want people to feed me when I`m hungry, I should help feed hungry people. With this reasoning, I can theoretically determine whether a possible action is right or wrong. So, on the basis of the golden rule, it would be wrong to lie, harass, harass, attack or kill others. The golden rule is an example of a normative theory that establishes a single principle on the basis of which we judge all actions. Other normative theories focus on a number of fundamental principles or a number of good character traits. Proponents of the different secular vision generally believe that moral values are objective in the sense that they exist in a spiritual field beyond subjective human conventions. They are also convinced that they are absolute or eternal in never changing, and also that they are universal, since they apply to all rational creatures throughout the world and over time.