On 3 March 1991, Iraq and the United Nations Security Council signed a ceasefire agreement after Iraq was driven out of Kuwait by US-led coalition forces during Operation Desert Storm. [15] Subsequently, in the 1990s, the United Nations Security Council adopted numerous resolutions calling on Iraq to disarm its weapons of mass destruction without conditions and without delay. As no peace treaty was signed after the Gulf War, the war remained in force, including an alleged attack on former US President George H. W. Bush by Iraqi agents during a visit to Kuwait; [16] Iraq was bombed in June 1993 in response, Iraqi troops fired on coalition aircraft patrolling Iraqi no-fly zones, US President Bill Clinton`s bombing of Baghdad in 1998 during Operation Desert Fox, and a previous US bombing of Iraq during Operation Desert Strike in 1996. The war remained in force until 2003, when American and British forces invaded Iraq and toppled Saddam Hussein`s regime from power. On 1 January 1949, a UN-brokered ceasefire was concluded between India and Pakistan, ending the 1947 Indo-Pakistan War (also known as the 1947 Kashmir War). In October 1947, fighting broke out in Kashmir between the two newly independent countries, with India intervening on behalf of the princely ruler of Kashmir, who joined India, and Pakistan, which supported the rebels. Fighting was limited to Kashmir, but as India feared it would turn to a global international war, India referred the matter to the UN Security Council, in accordance with Article 35 of the UN Charter, which deals with situations “likely to threaten the maintenance of international peace.” The Security Council established the United Nations Special Commission for India and Pakistan, which acted as a mediator for a year during which the fighting continued. Following several UN resolutions establishing a referendum settlement procedure, a ceasefire agreement was reached in late December 1948 between the countries, which came into force last year. The Security Council has established the United Nations Military Observer Group on India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) to monitor the ceasefire line. [17] In 2018, India declared a ceasefire in the Kashmir Valley during Ramadan. [18] Colletta, Nat.

(2011). The mediation of ceasefire agreements and the end of hostilities as part of the peace processes. In Peacemaking: From Practice to Theory. Praeger, 135-147. How long can this “ceasefire” last in the face of the border crossing of Russian troops and tanks? A ceasefire by left-wing rebels in Colombia could conclude the last one. It was good to see the human spirit reigning between all sides on the front, sharing and brotherhood. All was well until the senior commanders learned of the effects of the ceasefire, assuring their anger at a return to hostilities. [10] The 2020 global ceasefire was a response to a formal call on 23 March by UN Secretary-General Antonio Manuel de Oliveira Guterres for a global ceasefire as part of the UN response to the COVID 19 coronavirus pandemic. On 24 June 2020, 170 UN Member States and observers signed a non-binding declaration in support of the appeal, which increased to 172 on 25 June 2020, and on 1 July 2020, the UN Security Council adopted a resolution calling for a general and immediate cessation of hostilities for at least 90 days.

[21] [22] Ceasefire agreements can take place between state actors if they can even reach the stage of a global ceasefire[5] or involve non-state actors and be “local”. [6] They may be formal (usually in writing) or informal; their conditions may be public or secret. Ceasefires can be carried out by mediation or otherwise as part of a peace process, or by United Nations Security Council resolutions on Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. [1] Several attempts have been made to negotiate ceasefires during the